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Costa, M. A., Collins, R. E., Anterola, A. M., Cochrane, F. C., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) An In Silico Assessment of Gene Function and Organization of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Metabolic Networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and Limitations
Thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.

Cochrane, F. C., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Functional Classification of the Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Multigene Family. Part I. Kinetic Characterization of the Four PAL Isoforms. Phytochemistry 65, 1557-1564.

Anterola, A. M., van Rensburg, H., van Heerden, P. S., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (1999) Multi-site Modulation of Flux during Monolignol Formation in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 261, 652-657.

Anterola, A. M., Jeon, J.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Transcriptional Control of Monolignol Biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: Factors Affecting Monolignol Ratios and Carbon Allocation in Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 18272-18280.

Anterola, A. M. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Trends in Lignin Modification: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Effects of Genetic Manipulations/Mutations on Lignification and Vascular Integrity. Phytochemistry 61, 221-294.

Ralph, J., Hatfield, R. D., Piquemal, J., Yahiaoui, N., Pean, M., Lapierre, C. and Boudet, A.-M. (1998) NMR Characterization of Altered Lignins Extracted from Tobacco Plants Down-Regulated for Lignification Enzymes Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12803-12808.

Ralph, J., MacKay, J. J., Hatfield, R. D., O’Malley, D. M., Whetten, R. W. and Sederoff, R. R. (1997) Abnormal Lignin in a Loblolly Pine Mutant. Science 277, 235-239.

Boudet, A.-M. (1998) A New View of Lignification. Trends Plant Sci. 3, 67-71.

Lewis, N. G. (1999) A 20th Century Roller Coaster Ride: A Short Account of Lignification. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2, 153-162.

Meyer, K., Shirley, A. M., Cusumano, J. C., Bell-Lelong, D. A. and Chapple, C. (1998) Lignin Monomer Composition is Determined by the Expression of a Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenase in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 6619-6623.

Humphreys, J. M., Hemm, M. R. and Chapple, C. (1999) New Routes for Lignin Biosynthesis Defined by Biochemical Characterization of Recombinant Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase, a Multifunctional Cytochrome P450-dependent Monooxygenase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10045-10050.

Franke, R., Humphreys, J. M., Hemm, M. R., Denault, J. W., Ruegger, M. O., Cusumano, J. C. and Chapple, C. (2002) The Arabidopsis REF8 Gene Encodes the 3-Hydroxylase of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. Plant J. 30, 33-45.

Lee, D., Meyer, K., Chapple, C. and Douglas, C. J. (1997) Antisense Suppression of 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase Activity in Arabidopsis Leads to Altered Lignin Subunit Composition. Plant Cell 9, 1985-1998.

Ehlting, J., Büttner, D., Wang, Q., Douglas, C. J., Somssich, I. E. and Kombrink, E. (1999) Three 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligases in Arabidopsis thaliana Represent Two Evolutionarily Divergent Classes in Angiosperms. Plant J. 19, 9-20.

Lawrence, P. K., Bedgar, D. L., Shockey, J. M., Davin, L. B., Browse, J. A. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Further Classification of the Putative 4-Coumarate CoA Ligase Family in Arabidopsis. Phytochemistry, (in press, Proteomics Issue).

Pakusch, A.-E., Kneusel, R. E. and Matern, U. (1989) S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine:Trans-Caffeoyl-Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase From Elicitor-Treated Parsley Cell Suspension Cultures. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 271, 488-494.

Pakusch, A.-E. and Matern, U. (1991) Kinetic Characterization of Caffeoyl-Coenzyme A Specific 3-O-Methyltransferase from Elicited Parsley Cell Suspensions. Plant Physiol. 96, 327-330.

Schmitt, D., Pakusch, A.-E. and Matern, U. (1991) Molecular Cloning, Induction, and Taxonomic Distribution of Caffeoyl-Coa 3-O-Methyltransferase, an Enzyme Involved in Disease Resistance. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17416-17423.

Inoue, K., Sewalt, V. J. H., Ballance, G. M., Ni, W., Stürzer, C. and Dixon, R. A. (1998) Developmental Expression and Substrate Specificities of Alfalfa Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase in Relation to Lignification. Plant Physiol. 117, 761-770.

Shimada, M. (1972) Biochemical Studies on Bamboo Lignin and Methoxylation in Hardwood and Softwood Lignins. Wood Research 53, 19-65.

Shimada, M., Fushiki, H. and Higuchi, T. (1973) Mechanism of Biochemical Formation of the Methoxyl Groups in Softwood and Hardwood Lignins. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 19, 13-21.

Jaeck, E., Martz, F., Stiefel, V., Fritig, B. and Legrand, M. (1996) Expression of Class I O-Methyltransferase in Healthy and TMV-Infected Tobacco. Mol. Plant Microbe Inter. 9, 681-688.

Bugos, R., Chiang, V. and Campbell, W. (1991) cDNA Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Seasonal Expression of Lignin-Bispecific Caffeic Acid/5-Hydroxyferulic Acid O-Methyltransferance of sspen. Plant Mol. Biol.17, 1203-1215.

Lauvergeat, V., Lacomme, C., Lacombe, E., Lasserre, E., Roby, D. and Grima-Pettenati, J. (2001) Two Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase (CCR) Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana are Differentially Expressed During Development and in Response to Infection With Pathogenic Bacteria. Phytochemistry 57, 1187-1195.

Jones, L., Ennos, A. R. and Turner, S. R. (2001) Cloning and Characterization of Irregular Xylem4 (irx4): A Severely Lignin-Deficient Mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 26, 205-216.

Baucher, M., Chabbert, B., Pilate, G., Van Doorsselaere, J., Tollier, M.-T., Petit-Conil, M., Cornu, D., Monties, B., Van Montagu, M., Inze, D., Jouanin, L. and Boergan, W. (1996) Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar. Plant Physiol. 112, 1479-1490.

Marita, J. M., Ralph, J., Hatfield, R. D. and Chapple, C. (1999) NMR Characterization of Lignins in Arabidopsis Altered in the Activity of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12328-12332.

Franke, R., Hemm, M. R., Denault, J. W., Ruegger, M. O., Humphreys, J. M. and Chapple, C. (2002) Changes in Secondary Metabolism and Deposition of an Unusual Lignin in the ref8 Mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 30, 47-59.

Knight, M. E., Halpin, C. and Schuch, W. (1992) Identification and Characterization of cDNA Clones Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Tobacco. Plant Mol. Biol. 19, 793-801.

Halpin, C., Knight, M. E., Foxon, G. A., Campbell, M. M., Boudet, A. M., Boon, J. J., Chabbert, B., Tollier, M.-T. and Schuch, W. (1994) Manipulation of Lignin Quality by Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Plant J. 6, 339-350.

Li, L., Cheng, X., Leshkevich, J., Umezawa, T., Harding, S. and Chiang, V. (2001) The Last Step of Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis in Angiosperms is Regulated by a Novel Gene Encoding Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Plant Cell 13, 1567-1585.

Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D. L., Moinuddin, S. G. A., Cardenas, C. L., Davin, L. B., Kang, C.-H. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Functional Reclassification of the Putative Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Multigene Family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.

Lewis, N. G., Kasahara, H. and Davin, L. B. (2000) Patent: “Aryl Propenal Double Bond Reductase.” U.S. Patent Application filed March 27, 2001 (PCT/US01/09775).

Davin, L. B., Wang, H.-B., Crowell, A. L., Bedgar, D. L., Martin, D. M., Sarkanen, S. and Lewis, N. G. (1997) Stereoselective Bimolecular Phenoxy Radical Coupling by an Auxiliary (Dirigent) Protein Without an Active Center. Science 275, 362-366.

Gang, D. R., Costa, M. A., Fujita, M., Dinkova-Kostova, A. T., Wang, H.-B., Burlat, V., Martin, W., Sarkanen, S., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (1999) Regiochemical Control of Monolignol Radical Coupling: A New Paradigm for Lignin and Lignan Biosynthesis. Chem. Biol. 6, 143-151.

Halls, S. C. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Secondary and Quaternary Structures of the (+)-Pinoresinol Forming Dirigent Protein. Biochemistry 41, 9455-9461.

Halls, S. C. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) Reversed-phase HPLC Lignan Chiral Analysis with Laser Polarimetric Detection. Tetrahedron Assym. 14, 649-658.

Halls, S. C., Davin, L. B., Kramer, D. M. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Kinetic Study of Coniferyl Alcohol Radical Binding to the (+)-Pinoresinol Forming Dirigent Protein. Biochemistry 43, 2587-2595.

Burlat, V., Kwon, M., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2001) Dirigent Proteins and Dirigent Sites in Lignifying Tissues. Phytochemistry 57, 883-897.

Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2000) Dirigent Proteins and Dirigent Sites Explain the Mystery of Specificity of Radical Precursor Coupling in Lignan and Lignin Biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 123, 453-461.

Xia, Z.-Q., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2000) Dirigent-Mediated Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis in Linum flavum and Podophyllum peltatum. Phytochemistry 55, 537-549.

Wang, C.-Z., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2001) Stereoselective Phenolic Coupling in Blechnum spicant: Formation of 8-2´ Linked (–)-cis-Blechnic, (–)-trans-Blechnic and (–)-Brainic Acids. J.C.S. Chem. Commun. 113-114.

Moinuddin, S. G. A., Hishiyama, S., Cho, M.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2003) Synthesis and Chiral HPLC Analysis of the Dibenzyltetrahydrofuran Lignans, Larreatricins, 8´-epi-Larreatricins, 3,3´-Didemethoxyverrucosins and meso-3,3´-Didemethoxynectandrin B in the Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata): Evidence for Regiospecific Control of Coupling. Org. Biomol. Chem. 1, 2307-2313.

Hwang-Kim, K.-W., Davin, L. B., Franceschi, V. R. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Gene Expression of the Arabidopsis Sixteen Membered Dirigent Multigene Family. (Manuscript in finalization).

Hwang-Kim, K.-W., Davin, L. B., Franceschi, V. R. and Lewis, N. G. (2004) Beta-Glucuronidase as Reporter Gene. In “Arabidopsis Protocols” (Salinas, J. and Sanchez-Serrano, J. J., eds) (Manuscript in preparation).

Kim, M. K., Jeon, J.-H., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) Monolignol Radical-Radical Coupling Networks in Western Red Cedar and Arabidopsis and their Evolutionary Implications. Phytochemistry 61, 311-322.

Kim, M. K., Jeon, J.-H., Fujita, M., Davin, L. B. and Lewis, N. G. (2002) The Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata) 8–8´ DIRIGENT Family Displays Diverse Expression Patterns and Conserved Monolignol Coupling Specificity. Plant Mol. Biol. 49, 199-214.